Psychological Reactance. A Theory of Freedom and Control. Book • Authors: Sharon S. Brehm and Jack W. Brehm. Browse book content. About the book. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 16, Pages PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTANCE: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS. Jack W. Brehm, University. Abstract. Since Brehm first proposed reactance theory in , many studies have explored the remarkable psychological phenomenon of reactance, which.

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Cognition and Emotion, — However, it is unclear if this model generalizes to all reactance situations, that is, also to those outside the persuasion context.

Persuasive messages arouse reactance especially by using forceful and controlling language, such as the terms should, ought, must, and need.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Moral Psychology, Misc in Normative Ethics categorize this paper. Wicklund – – Potomac, Md. The neural correlates of psychological reactance—An fMRI study.

Research by Ziegler, Schlett, and Aydinly furthermore suggests that in this state, people also seem to react very sensitively to the weakness of arguments when confronted with a highly threatening message. Where only one product or service of the desired kind is available, the consumer will have only two freedoms: How should politicians justify reforms to avoid psychological reactance, negative attitudes, and financial dishonesty? Examining the dimensionality and correlates of the Hong Psychological Reactance Scale in a large clinical sample.

When citizens fight back: While an implicit activation of the stereotype that men are better in negotiating led to lower performance in women, an explicit activation led to higher performance in women.

The effects of attributional style. Avoidance resulted in more counterarguing and less positive perceptions of the communicator and the change message. Is there a difference between restricting a freedom versus imposing an alternative, and if so, how does this difference affect emotional experience, cognition, motivation, and physiological arousal? Customers may feel restricted by salespeople. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, — These would be freedoms such as watching your favorite TV program, spending one evening a week out with your friends, or going to bed early.


Understanding Psychological Reactance

Whereas some threats e. Psychological reactance increases relative left frontal cortical activation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.

Focusing on limitations that will result from the change has been shown to evoke more experience of thelry using Jonas et al. Wirtschaftspsychologie, 35— Biological Sciences, — Heart rate also increased following a legitimate restriction, but only after a time delay.

Jack Williams Brehm, A Theory of Psychological Reactance – PhilPapers

You will note that I speak not of freedom in general but rather of specific behavioral freedoms. Annual Review of Psychology, — For example, even though I live in Lawrence, Kansas, I am aware that out there somewhere in the world there are Psycholgoical, Thais, and Nigerian restaurants.

Now let us see how implied threats, too, can play a role. However, despite the well-explored consequences of reactance, there rheory been little exploration of reactance as a state per se. This might be comparable to dual-process models and their distinction between more impulsive and more reflective processes of social behavior e. Indeed, one of the most distressing things in my life is when I find that a product that I bought 10 years ago, and now want again, is no longer on the market.

Theorry role of message-induced empathy in persuasion.

A Theory of Psychological Reactance – Jack Williams Brehm – Google Books

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21— While these findings are far from an exhaustive account of research results predicted by the theory, they are enough to give one some notion of the theory’s usefulness. Beliefs Are Like Possessions. The latter becomes apparent if we look at shorter persuasive messages where there is less room for counterarguing.


It is possible, for example, that you believe your spouse would gladly take away your freedoms to be with your same sex friends, but would never interfere with your time with the children. What led me to this chain of conclusions, of course, was the idea fundamental to reactance theory, namely, that people become motivationally aroused by a threat to or elimination of a behavioral freedom.

Personality and Individual Differences, 85— On the behavioral side, threatened people may exhibit the restricted behavior direct restoration or may observe others performing a related behavior indirect restoration.

Furthermore, how do cognition and affect combine in different types of freedom threats? Why do I feel so much? Culture and the self. Without doubt many implicational principles are culture bound, but it would be my contention that the general principle of logical or psychological implication always operates.

Patients may feel constrained by doctors and therapists. Gain- and loss-frame sun safety messages and psychological reactance of adolescents. Freedom threats are probably common in many social interactions. Even though I can find the other brands that I am looking for, I cannot help noticing the attempt to influence my choice. Effects of amount of helplessness training breh, internal-external locus of control on mood and performance.

Thus reactance psycuological energizing and behavior-directing properties when something to restore the freedom can be done cf.