Ablaut and umlaut are two different phonological mutations, and often refer to vowel changes under inflection. the umlout, as in the diacritic. The textbook I’m using in my *History of the English Language* class doesn’t have a very good account of the difference. So far, I’ve gathered. Also, is there a difference between ”ablaut” and ”umlaut”? Does one apply to a sequence like ”sing/sang/sung” (i.e. verbs) while the other is reserved for nouns.

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Stem alternations and other hmlaut processes Stem modifications i. The difference in the vowels results from the influence in Proto-Germanic or a later Germanic language of an i or y which has since been lost on the vowel which in these examples becomes e. For a more detailed explanation see Germanic umlaut or I-mutation.

The naming of Ablaut and Umlaut

I’m not too sure about English, but I’ll add this because this also came up in the comments to the original question. However, the regularity of Germanic umlaut means that this distinction remains standard in textbooks for learners of German, Dutch and Scandinavian languages. The English example cited above demonstrates vowel ans.

Celtic languages are well known for their initial consonant mutations. In the perspective of the Schlegels, after all, organic languages only became less pure over time; here now was a claim that they could have impure origins. I suppose that an analogous process took place for foot. The two terms seem to me almost interchangeable.


Types of apophony Apophony may involve various types of alternations, including vowel s, consonant s, prosodic elements such as tonesyllable length snd, and even smaller features, such as nasality on vowels. They quarreled so badly it ended their correspondence, and they never met again.

Email Required, but never shown. The Sound-Symbolic System of Japanese. Another example is from Dinka:. Some examples in Japanese: The nonconcatenative morphology of the Afroasiatic languages is sometimes described in terms of apophony.

The vowel alternation may involve more than just a change in vowel quality. Apophony as a kind of word formation Ablaut reduplication or ablaut-motivated compounding is a type of word formation of “expressives” in English such as onomatopoeia. You must log in or sign up to reply here. The difference in the vowels results from the alternation in the Proto-Indo-European language of the vowel e with the vowel o or balaut no vowel.

In many cases, it goes from high sounds to deeper sounds. Ambiguity can of course be avoided by using alternative terms apophonygradationalternationinternal modification for ablaut ; vowel harmony for umlaut for the broader sense of the words.

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Much ado about Ablaut and Umlaut – Shells and Pebbles

You’re so considerate and gives us logical explanations. Here the words are formed by a reduplication of a base and an alternation of the internal vowel. Log in or Sign up. Apophony often involves vowels.

Apophony – Wikipedia

By analogy, descriptive linguists discussing synchronic grammars sometimes employ the terms ablaut and umlautusing ablaut to refer to morphological vowel alternation generally which is unpredictable phonologically and umlaut to refer to any type of regressive vowel harmony which is phonologically predictable.


But this meaning is secondary i. The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. What had happened was this. But looking at it from an etymological perspective will reveal that the plural of maht used to be mahti in Old High German. Your name or email address: Prosodic apophony Various prosodic elements, such as tone, syllable length, and stressmay be found in alternations. For my part, I can’t bring myself to understand a bit why those prepositions are employed, with my understanding of German so far.

Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Grimm suggested a certain analogy with Sanskrit — but Grimm knew no Sanskrit. Here the past tense is indicated by the vowel a just as the past tense is indicated on the verb jump with the past tense suffix -ed.

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In Indo-European linguistics, umlaut is the vowel alternation that produces such related words as f oo t and f ee t or str o ng and str e ngth. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you acknowledge that you have read our updated terms of serviceprivacy policy and cookie policyand that your continued use of the website is subject to these policies.

That, for Bopp, was precisely what was wrong with it: