48, Dumitru Irimia, Structura stilistică a limbii române contemporane, Editura Științifică și , Iorgu Iordan, Stilistica limbii române, Editura Științifică, 47, Dumitru Irimia, Structura stilistică a limbii române contemporane, Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică, I. Stil, stilistică, limbaj, Editura Academiei, 48, Dumitru Irimia, Structura stilistică a limbii române contemporane, Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică, 71, Valeria Guțu Romalo, Corectitudine și.
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The conclusion we reached is that only by continuously restoring the semantic preeminence, of maximum evidence, of the generic etymon2, we come to conceive and practice the Christian homily in a structural psycho-dialogical manner. Although the current form of religious speech, under the influence of rhetorical technique taken as far back as the fourth century B. C, retains almost nothing of the manifestations of the primary homiletic dialogue, practiced until that time in the meetings typical of the Christian worship3, the circularity, informal and inexplicit, of the messages specific to preacher-type interaction are preserved, taking place in a complex interpersonal setting by its nature, with many variables and psycho-emotional interferences.
Person and personality in the homiletic process If we admit the assumption that the homiletic act is based on interpersonal relationship be it even embryonic, with all its potentialities and variables, more or less perceptible, but existingthen our analysis is focused on that psychodiscursive area hosting the relationship between persons – that of the preacher and of his receptors4.
Sermo potius quam oratio ordinary speech rather than discoursecf. Sermo; behold the etymological reason for which, giving them the form of a dialogue with Gaius Maecenas, the influential Roman nobleman who promoted artsthe Latin poet Horace used for his famous Satirae the word Sermones Conversations.
Calaméo – PCTS 6_
It is significant, at the same time, the way in which the homily was performed the Christian speech integrated into the worship in the early Church: VII, Encyclopedia Press,s. Thus, the first conveys the objective informational content of the duumitru in the case of sermon, the Christian doctrines and precepts ieimia, while the other involves psycho-emotional manifestations the ethical and affective perception of the person of the preacher, his verbal and nonverbal behavior during the sermon, the internal emotional and cognitive responsiveness of the receptors, etc.
We must not understand that, from this perspective, the role of logical-textual factors, argumentative or linguistic, is somewhat minimized, but nor they should be structra by giving full importance in the economy of preaching. The words, utterances and ideas of homily – intradiscursive reviewers, in the terminology of Maria Catanescu5 – cannot be regarded abstractly and dissociatively, organically non-integrated in the global communicative context.
Perceived only in their syntactic logic or at most argumentative, these reviewers do not exceed the status of simple utilitarian linguistic elements. The receiver hears, sees, feels, reacts spiritually before the whole homiletic dramaturgy of the preacher. It becomes, in other words, means of communication and intellective knowledge, but also interpersonal.
Iri,ia for the receptors, the appropriation of homiletic message releases decodifying processes that contain a deep subjective mark.
Both as fundamental linguistic units, and within their syntactic and stylistic relations from the structure of that homiletic text, words involve those distinct psychic marks the famous expression of Ferdinand de Saussure which the system of the language determined in the consciousness of receptors on other communicative occasions.
As such, by virtue of the unique intrapersonal profile of each of them, the semantic echoes of the locutionary level is amplified in an unquantifiable manner. From this perspective, in case of sermon, the quality of the pastoral relation between the church orator and the receptors of his discourse plays an essential role. Being possible only in terms of a minimum relational setting, the knowledge of psychological data about the receptors of the sermon will allow the orator to anticipate, with some limits, of course, the reactions generated by speech.
Affective Valencies of the Homiletic Discourse
The possible information gaps can be improved by using tools stilitica as dictionaries, books or asking experts, a much more difficult solution, if not impossible, in the case of interpersonal relationship dysfunction.
Robinson in his course of relationship, that can be perfectly illustrated in the model given by the Old Testament by describing the hierophanic dialogue on Mount Sinai: If, on the one hand, in the interpersonal knowledge it represents the great obstacle, on the other hand, in a self-referential regard, this apofatism of the person is not necessarily valid.
Self-knowledge is one of the principles to which the universal philosophical reflection has paid special attention. All personalist thinkers agree on certain defining traits of the human person: Although not completely independent of the various circumstantial factors, the human personal entity is exercised according to an internal autonomy, a stability or consistency, that allows a predictability of the behavior depending on lrimia personality structure, and finally, on the motivational specificity that stilisica be assessed but based on its effects.
Despite these theoretical guidelines about it, the person frequently proves, in situations that would justify the predictability of its behavior, a deep spontaneous character, inconsistent with the expectations of the irimua.
Avoiding strict classifications and epistemic patterns that try to assign an identifiable constancy to it, the human personality is actually controlled by a dialectic tension Emmanuel Mouniera dynamism, internal but perceptible also in the exterior, by which it manages its identity crises.
This is how, despite current talk about the peers, the essential dissimilarity that human persons actually present among them, by their internal unrepeatable structures, has all chances to contradict the appearances of this term so frequently used.
As personal beings, we considerably resemble at the generic level, but we are fundamentally different regarding the modes of perceiving external reality. At this level of discussion, the ultimate and most desirable attribute of a personality remains authenticity, a concept synonymously associated, not without insignificant differential nuances, with notions of honesty, truth and spontaneity.
Despite the result, inevitably obscure, of our use of the language services, the authenticity of the speaker’s personality reflects the way in which his spiritual substance, ultimately untranslatable, transposes however, spontaneously and honestly, to verbal and mimic-gesture dumihru meant to share, as much as possible, that inner content entirely faithful to the Truth.
This happens because our spiritual substance the connotative meanings assigned to words, the domination of different cultural patterns, the intimate semanticassociative mechanisms, values assumed, beliefs, aspirations, likes, etc.
Leonard Gavriliu translation, preface and annotation by ph. The American researcher Joseph E. LeDoux found stilistcia the amygdal nucleus, the intracefal organ responsible for our affective life, is the one which receives first, before the neocortex, the optical stilistoca acoustic signals we receive, which explains the anteriority and the prevalence of emotion upon the logic in the human receptive behavior.
See irjmia work The Emotional Brain: In this phenomenon specific to the receiving consciousness we must find the explanation of the feeling we dumiru, almost every time, that our utterances do not find themselves, from a semantic point of view, in the mind of the other but with some variable differences. Sometimes, the answer or reaction we receive shows, as clearly as possible, the change which the content of our message suffers, once arrived in the psychic environment of the receiver.
Other times, this incongruency between eumitru intended meaning of the one emitting a message and the one the receiver proves is felt much later, together with its consequences, some even unpleasant.
A relative substitute of the human instinct of unity and communion, the verbal communication ends up by finding the fundamental incommunicability of the states of consciousness that generate the words: By virtue of this assumption, the homiletic communicative background puts to dialogue several axiological personal patterns that exist, of stilisticz, against the background of stilisfica identitary plurality.
The preacher shows a certain type of personality, which comes in touch with similar personalities or very likely, different, with personal cognitive and emotional organisations, which makes the progressive dynamics of the homiletic relation involve, as expected, adequate variations.
Therefore, the different intensities of the personality of the preacher become sensitive and, thus, susceptible to influenceto the same extent, both to the autogenerative ideation of the discourse and dhmitru the personal presence of those he has in front.
In the light of the unique amalgam of positive features and, inevitably, of imperfections that constitute its inner nature, that anima with which C. Verbal pathos or emotionality in and by word Although in their paradigmatic dimension virtual the constituent elements of the language compose the linguistic selection background of a socio-cultural community, in terms of syntagm and, implicitly, phonematic the material side of language words prove their descent from an inner space streaked with struvtura preponderance specific to the person who uses the language.
Beyond the grammatical principles established by regulatory convention, the choice of words, their syntactic-semantic coordination and stylistic expressiveness have as a source, 23 Paul Popescu — Neveanu, op. This aspect can generate an inferiority complex in the psyche of the preacher, expressing through hyper-emotivity or fright.
In a study dedicated to the occurences of psychological phenomena in the act of preaching, Marcu Banescu gives the following recommendations to eliminate the fright and timidity in the sermon: The literary srilistica oratorical concept of style is based exactly on this individualized mark which the author imprints on the text issued, at the level of the linguistic code used, but also at the level of the global message. Interacting with the communicative stiliatica which includes, in the first place, the receptors of his speech and lexical material available, the orator comes to innovate in structur of style, using linguistic means meant to intensify the expressiveness of speech.
In the stylistic phenomenon, the referential component of communication deeply interferes with the subjective one. Thus, in a perfect complementarity, the grammatical sense, the degree of emotionality transposed by speaker to expression by means of verbal and paraverbal vectors and the intentional dynamics of the nonverbal language determine the stylistic profile of that homiletic production. The coordinates of the public perception on the personality of the preacher form what the modern rhetorical studies call the persuasive ethos or the charismatic virtues of the speaker31, a factor credited with a major share in the economy of speech.
This extraverbal influence of the transmitter can have three stages: On the same topic, a very good writer of homiletic studies duly noticed: The personality of the orator achieves a nex with the conceptual universe he preaches and, from this existential position, seeks to obtain the affective consensus of the others.
In the reception of the sermon, stilisticca exceed the pure intellective dimension, letting themselves dominated by feelings, aspirations, positive or negative moods etc. A fundamental generative principle of style is the linguistic choice or option Determined from double direction – the expressive value of the word and the individual attitude of the speaker towards the subject and the receiver36 – the lexical selection configures the stylistic identity of the text. Arguing the existence of anamnetic-semantic resources of struftura word, Gh N.
Dragomirescu wrote in the pages of his matchless encyclopedia of the figures of speech: The appropriate syntactic gesture, the happiest combination of sentences are born in the inner dynamics of the speaker, wtructura, of course, by two other important factors: All these elements are added the influence of the discursive subtext, namely the totality of meanings that the message involves. That is why the preacher, the verbal homiletic transmitter, but also the listeners to a significant dmuitru, “personalise the irkmia Ibidem, p.
The reflexivity of issuance encounters the emotional patterns typical of the addressees transitivitywhich facilitates, through structuda locutionary values, the affective transfer. From the perspective of the homiletic transmitter, the solution of maximum efficiency lies in the sense of the responsible combination of different linguistic registers, subordinated, obviously, to the effective preaching of the Christian precepts and, ultimately, to the soteriological purpose of preaching.
In constant correlation iri,ia other phonological elements intonation, duration, intensity, rhythm and with the prosodic ones rhythm, rhyme, pauses, tempothe affective accent creates new stylistic dumitrh in the context. Thus, the preacher priest prefers certain words, which he places in different discursive sequences, giving them an obvious affective stilidtica, meant to transmit the state of mind of the speaker, but also to change, in the same direction, the feelings of the irimai receptors.
In the following examples, the spiritual presence of the speaker becomes perceptible, especially phonetically: The argumentative and linguistic instrumentation specific to the pathos dimension aims, thus, at stimulating the passional character sgructura the public.
It is found in that rhetoric function called by the ancient theorists animos impellere resort to feelings, to soul and which found a favorite ground of manifestation in the exordium and epilogue. In fact, analyzing the structural taxonomy of the oratorical speech, we reach the conclusion that the dominant manner in which it was designed and presented meets the emotional demands: Confirmatio logical- 38 Dumitru Irimia, op. Epilogue affective mark dumiru The Logos is, thus, enclosed by pathos and ethos, rhetorical dimensions that predominantly communicate the speaker, intending to involve, by this, the feelings of the receptors.
This entitles us to infer that the appropriate environment to exert the persuasion is an emotional one. The homiletic type interaction presents perceptive manifestations similar to those of conversation.
The researchers in the field of interactionist psychology reached stilitsica conclusion that during the conversational exchange communicators undergo, in stages or discontinuously, interactional micro-emotions, which they do not retain as such, they remaining in a stage rather subliminal In the case of orator, this affective substratum becomes perceptible in the lexical typology used, in the declarative and phraseological combinatorics, at the supra-segmental level of the language phonetic variability, verbal flow, pitch of voice, intensity, pause etc.
The most productive stylistic quality for the creative liberty of the preacher remains the novelty of the linguistic units used words and syntagms. A privileged factor in the interference between stilisticx cultures and implicitly between the national languages of Europe is the biblical text” p. Drawing a conclusion, for the time being, to a problem that is still open and actual, we believe that the presence of the church vocabulary in the stylistic structure of the preacher nowadays becomes a secondary demand, rather aesthetical, being justified as long as it does not affect the semantic congruence, a sine stiilistica non condition of the effective communication Dumitu The homiletic stiliztica undertakes a semantic territory deeply rooted in terms of interpersonal relationship, between the preacher and the faithful receptors.
Far from taking, structra and mechanically, exterior meanings, the persons involved in the homiletic process forge the communicative meanings through their inner co-orientation according to the contextual marks. The direct interaction puts into action deep personal energies, inner universes that are hard to discern, performing a sub-textual function, with the role of a matrix generating the ideas and emotionality specific to homiletic discourse.
The lexical selection, the creations of phrases, the compositional structuura prononciative style, the gestures, all are each with its well-defined and complementary role towards the sttuctura elements representative marks of the personality of the preacher, the scope of this concept integrating the cultural competence too.
The obsolete stilitsica forms of the stfuctura speech often produce semantic obscurity, therefore, they must be trusted to the specialized philological approach diachronic study of texts and linguistic typologiesfor scientific purposes only.
As for it, the homiletic language will facilitate the understanding of the Christian message by the actual world srtuctura if it adapts, with maximum communicative realism, to the linguistic competence of the receptors in the respective historical period.
To this end, the practice of permanent dialogue with the parishioners in order to perform a thematic and linguistic diagnosisthe synonymous variation updated to avoid lexical monotony and the prophylaxis of wooden language an anti-language phenomenon characterized by the very annihilation of subjectivity in the written and oral expression are just some of the means advisable.
In carrying out this affective struchura specific to the Christian homily, sttilistica very important role is played by the communicative availability of the personalities involved aspect dependent on the psychological typology in questionbut also the stylistic methods, paraverbal and mimic and gesture in order to build such a spiritual connection. Despite a quite widespread prejudice, that turns out to be a cause of the frequent homiletic failures, the strict referential dimension of the message of the sermon, although extremely important, is not a sufficient source of success.
We shall discover, from the continuous pastoral and didactic exercise, that homily reaches its maximum efficiency only when it focuses on direct human interaction between the person of the preacher and the person of the believer to whom the ecclesial speech addresses. Despre demnitatea Europei, ed. Interpersonal Communication Relevance to Professional. Application Form for Reviewer. Assessment List for Birth Myth. Several inequalities about the number of positive divisors of a.
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