1 B. Sorry, there is no online preview for this file type. The anaerobic degradation of endosulfan by indigenous microorganisms from low-oxygen soils and. Higher chlorinated pcbs are subjected to reductive dehalogenation by anaerobic microorganisms. The anaerobic degradation of endosulfan by indigenous. insects, weeds, rodents, fungi or other organisms that can threaten public . degradation rates, deposition rates) and the characteristics of the .. Endosulfan.
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Extensive applications of organochlorine pesticides like endosulfan have led to the contamination of soil and environments. Five different bacteria were isolated from cockroaches living in pesticide contaminated environments. After 10 days of incubation, the biodegradation yields obtained from P. As a result, these bacterial strains may be utilized for biodegradation of endosulfan polluted soil and environments.
Endosulfan is a chlorinated cyclodiene and broadspectrum insecticide used in a wide variety of food and non-food crops against many insect pests. Technical grade endosulfan is a mixture of two filetyps, i. Due to its extensive use, endosulfan residues are commonly found in the environment such as atmosphere, soils, sediments, surface and ground waters and foodstuffs Hussain et al.
Its abundant use poses a threat to environmental quality and public health. Endosulfan affects the central nervous system, kidney, liver, blood chemistry, parathyroid gland and has teratogenic and mutagenic effects Lu et al.
Several microorganisms, both bacteria and fungi, have been isolated from different sources which have the capability to degrade endosulfan Goswami and Singh, ; Bajaj et al. These microorganisms can use endosulfan either as carbon or sulfur source or both Siddique et al.
The use of endosulfan as a sulfur source and the subsequent removal of sulfur from the compound considerably reduced its toxicity to mammals Dorough et al. Invertebrates host numerous microorganisms with interactions ranging from symbiosis to pathogenesis, but the microflora of insects is unexplored as yet. Cockroaches have micriorganisms searched as transmitters of pathogenic bacteria and carrries of multiple antibiotic resistance strains Fotedar et al.
No information is available about the intestinal microbes of cockroaches, which live in a pesticide environment. The insect gut provides ideal conditions for gene transfer between filetyep Dillon and Dillon, Microorganisms adapt to changing environmental conditions by horizontal gene transfer De Boever et al. Considering these points, we suggest that isolated bacterial strains may have developed resistance to pesticides.
All solvents microorgqnisms were of the highest analytical grade and were employed without further purification. The chemical structure and the most important physical parameters of endosulfan are summarized in Fig.
Isolation of endosulfan degrading microorganisms. Cockroaches Blatta orientalis Linnaeus, ; Dictyoptera were collected from stables contaminated with pyrethroid and chlorinated organochlorine pesticide in Samsun Turkey.
This subculture was repeated under the same culture conditions, and then an aliquot 0. Identification of endosulfan degrading microorganisms. Biochemical reactions were conducted according microorbanisms Benson Identification was confirmed by the fatty acid analysis for all bacterial isolates. The identity of bacterial strains was revealed by computer comparison of FAME profiles of the unknown test strains with those in the microorganisns.
Preparation of bacterial inoculum for biodegradation studies. Bacterial strains were grown in Nutrient Broth Merck to mid log phase of growth. The micdoorganisms were then centrifuged at The optical densities of the culture media were determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance at nm. The sample was dried with anhydrous Na 2 SO 4and concentrated with a rotary evaporator. All experiments were performed in triplicate.
They were identified based on their morphological, biochemical characteristics Table II and the cellular fatty acid compositions Table III. Different species had various cellular membrane compositions and all strains contained Strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa G1 was gram negative, catalase and oxidase positive, nitrate reductase negative.
Its major fatty acids were Strain Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2 was gram negative and catalase negative, oxidase and nitrate reductase positive. Strain Bacillus atrophaeus G3 was gram positive and catalase, oxidase, nitrate reductase positive. Strain Citrobacter amolonaticus G4 was gram negative and catalase, oxidase, nitrate reductase positive. Strain Filetypee lwoffii G5 was gram negative and catalase and oxidase negative, nitrate reductase positive. The most significant fatty acid was The other three major fatty acids were Bacterial strains showed similar growth on the third day of incubation and the cell density increased exponentially with time.
At the end of 10 th day, the highest optical densities for G1 1. As shown in Fig. The lowest percentage of degradation Invertebrates are known to harbour a rich and complex community of microorganisms in their guts and other body regions Dillon and Dillon, ; Ozdal et al.
Insect gut symbiotic microbiota allow us to find novel biocatalysts. Many researchers have reported pesticide microorganisks bacteria isolated from pesticide contaminated soil Goswami and Singh, ; Thangadurai and Deggrading, Also, although our livers get much of the credit as a toxin degrading organ, our gut microbiome is likely a major player as well Gill et al.
Cegrading isolates were identified microorgxnisms P. Mainly, different applied methods are used for the identification of unknown microorganisms. The first method is based on biochemical, physiological and morphological criteria. The second method is based on chemotaxonomy.
The chemotaxonomic approach for obtaining bacterial fatty acid profiles is based on analysis of the methyl esters of their fatty acids by gas chromatography Basile et al.
Whole cellular fatty acid filethpe esters content is a stable bacterial profile, mivroorganisms analysis method imcroorganisms rapid, cheap, simple to perform and highly automated, and has long been used for microbial diagnostics and taxonomy Giacomini et al.
Pseudomonas species have 3-OH Similiar results were reported by David et al. The predominance of terminally methylbranched iso and anteiso fatty acids having 12 to 17 degradign is a characteristic observed in all Bacillus species. The normal fatty acids such as The major cellular fatty acids of Citrobacter are C The major fatty acids of Acinetobacter strains were Each strain of Acinetobacterexcept A.
Previous researchers have reported that endosulfan can be used as the sole sulfur source Hussain et al.
Endosulfan is a poor biological energy source, as it contains only six potential reducing electrons. However, it has a relatively reactive cyclic sulfite diester group and can serve as a good sulfur source Sutherland et al.
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The removal of sulfur moiety from the endosulfan substantially reduced its vertabrate toxicity and therefore helped in detoxification of the compound Goebel et al. The isolated bacterial strains could degrade about Optical density of the isolates increased with time.
This effect is due to a greater number of organisms that can more easily tolerate the toxic compounds Hussain et al. In the case of the experiment done by Yu et al.
Pesticide tolerance in these bacteria may be important in the bioremediation of polluted environments by the pesticides.
In this study, we showed that pesticide degrading bacteria can be isolated from insects. Other insects Colorado potato beetle, microoorganisms and termites which lives in pesticide contaminated environments should be researched to isolate different pesticide degrading bacteria as well.
Acknowledgements We thank Dr Recep Kotan for his kind support in laboratory assistance regarding fatty acid profile analysis. Isolation and characterization of a Pseudomonas sp. Microbiological Applications Laboratory Manual. Laboratory Manual for Filetpe Microbiology. A study degradding parameters optimization for degradation of microofganisms by bacterial consortia isolated from contaminated soil.
Isolation of an endosulfan-degrading bacterium from a coffee farm soil: Persistence and inhibitory effect on its biological devrading. Van der Auwera, J. Conjugation-mediated plasmid exchange between bacteria grown under space flight conditions. Adaptive plasmid evolution results in host-range expansion of a broad-host-range plasmid.
The gut bacteria of insects: Fate of endosulfan in rats and toxicological considerations of apolar metabolites. Draft Endosulfan Risk Characterization Document: A direct comparison between fatty acid analysis and intact phospholipid profiling for microbial identification.
Cockroaches Blattella germanica as carriers of microorganisms of medical importance in hospitals.
Thesis on biodegradation of endosulfan \
Artificial neural network based identification of environmental bacteria by gas-chromatographic and electrophoretic data. Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome. Properties, effects, residues and analytics of the insecticide endosulfan.
Ffiletype of a and b degradingg in broth medium and soil microcosm by bacterial strain Bordetella sp. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. Cellular fatty acid composition in Pseudomonas species.
Fatty Acids of the Genus Bacillus: Kataoka R and K. Biodegradability and biodegradation pathways of endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate.